KOH etching is a preferred silicon wafer fabrication method because it works rapidly and reliably while handling of the chemicals is relatively safe. The process relies on a contamination-free environment and uses the temperature and KOH concentration to control the etching speed. Teflon tanks are used in this process because the Teflon is stable and doesn’t degrade. The KOH etching process controls allow accurate and repeatable temperature control for reliable fabrication results and high-quality production. KOH etching in Teflon tanks with temperature control is an excellent process for silicon wafer nanostructure fabrication in both manufacturing facilities and research environments.
How KOH Etching Works
KOH or potassium hydroxide etches silicon quickly and at a constant rate that depends on the concentration of the solution and the temperature of the liquid. In addition to these controllable variables, silicon etching is influenced by the crystal planes of the silicon and the doping concentration. These factors can be used to direct etching in certain directions and to stop etching at given points. The result is that KOH etching can produce the precise nanostructures needed as long as the crystal planes and doping are used correctly.
The controllable variables have to be kept tightly to set values and variations have to be minimized. Important factors are the maintenance of the KOH solution at the desired concentration and temperature. The Teflon tanks have to be designed to support the consistent and accurate etching necessary for defect-free wafer fabrication.
Modutek Teflon Tank Features
Modutek Teflon tanks are designed to support KOH etching leading to wafer fabrication of the highest quality. The temperature-controlled tanks are available in re-circulating and static versions and come in standard sizes for single or double carrier capacities as well as in custom sizes when required. The re-circulating tanks have an all-Teflon fluid path, and in the available custom configurations, are easy to integrate into existing fabrication lines.
Modutek Teflon tanks eliminate contamination from the tanks or fluid paths by ensuring the KOH solution only comes into contact with Teflon, which in unaffected by the corrosive chemical. In addition, Teflon welding for the tanks is carried out with advanced PFA sheet welding techniques that reduce impurities and by-products. The result is that the KOH solution stays pure.
A key element of the KOH etching process control is the initial concentration of the KOH solution and keeping it constant throughout the process step. Modutek Teflon tanks have sealed lids that minimize water loss, even during lengthy etching. Water condensing systems and de-ionized water spiking systems are available if the application requires it.
The other variable affecting the etch rate is the temperature of the KOH solution. Modutek tanks have either inline heating or immersion heating in the overflow weir. Temperature can be controlled between 30 and 100 degrees Centigrade with an accuracy of plus/minus 0.5 degrees Centigrade. Heating is rapid with an average heat-up rate of 2 to 3 degrees Centigrade per minute depending on the details of the installation. Rapid heating and tight control result in superior etching performance and consistent output.
To make operation of the KOH etching flexible and convenient, the Modutek Teflon tanks systems have standard drain interlocks and low level, high limit, and high-temperature alarms. Temperature process controllers and remote operation timers are also available.
Modutek Teflon KOH tanks are designed specifically for applications such as KOH etching and Modutek can supply custom systems specially adapted to customer requirements. Tank sizes and controls can be designed to match customer applications. Modutek can rely on its experience and expertise to supply KOH etching systems that meet the highest quality standards and deliver the best output possible.